The sands are washed onto the beach by the waves everyday. They are called ‘beach washing’. These sands are the raw materials naturally harvested by KMML for the manufacture of the finest grades of Titanium Dioxide pigment and other products.

KMML is India's only RUTILE GRADE TITANIUM DIOXIDE MANUFACTURING FACILITY (through Chloride Route). The Manufacturing Plant at KMML comprises the Mineral Separation Unit and the TP Unit (Ilmenite Beneficiation Plant, Acid Regeneration Plant, Pigment Production Plant, Oxygen Plant & Utility Section).

The raw Ilmenite obtained from the Mineral Separation Unit is taken to the manufacturing facility for further processing. Titanium Dioxide is manufactured here using the chloride route. The chloride route is better than the sulphate route as highest levels of purity can be achieved with this.



The process mainly consists of four steps:

  • Reduction and Leaching of raw ilmenite to 90-92% TiO2
  • Ilmenite Beneficiation
  • Regeneration of spent HCl
  • Conversion of Beneficiated Ilmenite to TiO2

The resultant TiO2 is used to produce TiO2 pigments of different grades. The by product Iron Oxide of the process is used to make the popular Iron Bricks. Special care is taken to regenerate the acid and keep the pollution to near zero levels.

The facility follows stringent Safety, Health and Environmental Policies and Practices at every step of the manufacturing process.

Titanium Sponge Plant (TSP)

Titanium Sponge Plant is first plant in India to produce Titanium Sponge, which is the intermediate product to Titanium Metal. Titanium Sponge Plant has its three sections as below.

Tickle Purification Plant (TPP)

Titanium Tetra Chloride (TiCl4) is the main raw material for the production of Titanium Sponge, which is available as pigment grade TiCl4  in the Titanium Pigment Unit of KMML. This pigment garde TiCl4 is further purified in to metal grade TiCl4 though double stage fractional distillation in Tickle Purification Plant.




Metal Production Plant (MPP)

Formation of Titanium Sponge took place at the Metal Production Plant of TSP through Kroll Process.  The raw materials used are metal grade TiCl4 and the high purity Magnesium (Mg) metal. The processes involves reduction of TiCl4 with Mg and pyro-vacuum distillation to tap out the MgCl2 produced as by product during the process.


Sponge Handling Plant (SHP)

Final product formation of the Titanium Sponge Produced is taking place in SHP, where cutting of the sponge using hydraulic presses, shredding, and pelletizing to required size are done.

All the sponge formation processes are taking place under high purity argon atmosphere for which separate argon storage with evaporators along with utilities like compressed air, water treatment system etc are installed in the titanium sponge plant.


The Manufacturing Facility at KMML is equipped with the following Units / Plants / Sections.

Click on each to know more about each plant or the processes involved in the production of the Titanium Dioxide pigments of various grades and other products manufactured by KMML.